India has registered significant progress in improving life expectancy at birth, reducing mortality due to Malaria, as well as reducing infant and material mortality over the last few decades. In spite of the progress made, a high proportion of the population, especially in rural areas, continues to suffer and die from preventable diseases, pregnancy and child birth related complications as well as malnutrition. In addition to old unresolved problems, the health system in the country is facing emerging threats and challenges like, an estimated 5 million people in the country are living with HIV/AIDS, non-communicable diseases such as cardio-vascular diseases, cancer, blindness, mental illness and tobacco use related illnesses etc have imposed the chronic diseases burden on the already over- stretched health care system in the country. India is in the midst of an epidemiological and demographic transition – with the attendant problems of increased chronic disease burden and a decline in mortality and fertility rates leading to an ageing of the population. Premature morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases can be a major economic and human resource loss for India.